sexism n : discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of the opposite sex
- The belief that people of one sex or gender are inherently superior to
people of the other sex or gender.
- The notion that either gender is smarter or stronger is sexism.
- Unfair treatment or discrimination based on a difference of sex
- The fact that there is only one woman in a management position in that company makes it easy to believe that sexism runs rampant there.
- Disadvantage or unequal opportunity arising from the cultural
dominance of one gender over the other.
- In order to succeed in this company, women generally must acquire various masculine traits, which only points out the underlying sexism.
- Promotion or expectation or assumption of people to behave in
accordance with or deviate from a gender role.
- Hollywood contributes to sexism in our society by making and promoting violent films for men and romantic comedies for women.
- Croatian: seksizam
- Czech: sexismus
- French: sexisme
- German: Sexismus
- Italian: sessismo
- Polish: seksizm
Sexism is a belief or attitude that one gender or sex is inferior to or less valuable than the other and can also refer to a hatred or distrust towards either sex as a whole (see also misogyny and misandry), or creating stereotypes of masculinity for men or femininity for women.. It is also called male and female chauvinism.
Sexism can refer also to any and all systemic differentiations based on the gender of a person, not based on their individual merits. In some circumstances this type of sexism may constitute sex discrimination, which in some forms is illegal in some countries.
Generalization and partitionSexist beliefs, as a part of essentialism, holds that individuals can be understood or judged based primarily on the characteristics of the group to which they belong—in this case, their sexual group, as men or women. This assumes that all individuals fit into the category of male or female and does not take into account intersexed people who are born with a mixture of male and female sexual characteristics. This also assumes a significant degree of homogeneity in the characteristics of men and women respectively, and generally does not take into account the differences that exist within these groups. XY males and XX females who are genetically one sex but have developed the characteristics of the opposite sex during the foetal stage are usually considered with respect to their phenotypes under this system.
Certain forms of sexual discrimination are illegal in many countries, but nearly all countries have laws that give special rights, privileges, or responsibilities to one sex or two sexes.
Sexism against womendetails Chauvinism The term 'sexism' is most commonly applied to sexism against women, and when expressed by a man is often called male chauvinism. Related terms are misogyny and gynophobia, which refer to the hatred and fear of women or femininity.
Historically, in many patriarchal societies, women have been and are viewed as the "weaker sex". Women's lower status can be seen in cases in which women were not even recognized as persons under the law of the land. The feminist movement promotes women's rights to end sexism against women by addressing issues such as equality under the law, political representation of women, access to education and employment, women victims of domestic violence, self-ownership of a woman's body, and the impact of pornography on women.
Sexism against men
The view that women are superior to men is also a form of sexism, and when expressed by a woman can be called female chauvinism.
Sexism against men has been referred to as "reverse sexism." Suedfeld criticizes this label, stating that discrimination against men is sexism, and that the reverse of discrimination is non-discrimination. Androphobia refers to the fear of men or masculinity.
In The War Against Boys Christina Hoff Sommers analyzes the gender gap in education using studies that show that by twelfth grade, "males are four times as likely as females not to do homework." Sommers argues that this gender gap is troubling and that it is not being addressed due to institutionalized sexist attitudes towards men.
Glenn Sacks, an American men's and fathers' issues columnist and radio broadcaster, initiated a campaign in 2003 against T-shirts carrying the slogan "Boys are stupid, throw rocks at them!". He claimed that these T-shirts were part of a general societal mood that stigmatizes and victimizes boys. The company that produced the shirts claimed that they were meant only to be humorous. The campaign against the line received support from several men's rights groups, such as the National Coalition of Free Men, but also from groups with broader agendas, such as the Southern Poverty Law Center. Many critics of the T-shirts pointed out that similar slogans directed against girls or ethnic groups would be widely regarded as unacceptable. The Canadian Children's Rights Council termed the slogan hate speech. The campaign led to the removal of the shirts from more than 3,000 retail outlets. The slogan has also been criticized by Bernard Goldberg in his book, 100 People Who Are Screwing Up America, where Todd Goldman, the shirts' creator, was listed as number 97.
According to Nathanson and Young, one form of feminism they call "ideological feminism" is chauvinistic as well as misandric. They assert that this form of feminism alleges "directly or indirectly that women are superior to men," and that its supporters often claim that "women are psychologically, morally, spiritually, intellectually, and biologically superior to men".
Wendy McElroy refers to male stereotyping when she claims that in some gender feminist views, all men are considered irreconcilable rapists, wife-beating brutes, and useless as partners or fathers to women. McElroy and Camille Paglia claim that gender feminists view women as innocent victims who never make irresponsible or morally questionable choices. Other feminists such as Kate Fillion have questioned the idea that women are always innocent victims and men always the guilty victimizers when the interests of each collide with those of the other.
On the other hand, Ariel Levy uses the term in another sense in the title of her book, Female Chauvinist Pigs. She claims that many young women in the United States are replicating male chauvinism and sexist stereotypes about women in their embrace of what she labels "raunch culture" and traditionally masculine attributes. These women she designates female chauvinist pigs.
Sexism against transsexuals
Transsexuality (also known as transgender) is a complex condition that is defined differently by different people. Transphobia refers to discrimination against transsexuality and transsexual or transgender people, based on their personal gender identification (see Phobia - terms indicating prejudice or class discrimination). Whether intentional or not, transphobia can have severe consequences for the person the object of the negative attitude. The LGBT movement has campaigned against sexism against transsexuals. The most typical forms of sexism against transsexuals are how many "women-only" and "men-only" events and organizations have been criticized for rejecting transfemales, and transmales respectively.
Sexism and sexual expression
The expression of sexual intimacy is a part of the human condition. However, various aspects of human sexuality have been argued as having contributed to sexism.
The Sexual RevolutionDuring the sexual revolution, there was a change in the cultural perception of sexual morality and sexual behavior. The sexual revolution has been known as the sexual liberation by feminists since some saw this new development in the West as a leveling ground for females to have as many choices concerning their sexuality as males--hoping to eliminate the problematic virgin/whore dichotomy of traditional Western society.
Modern feminists like Ariel Levy have warned that the current state of commercial sexuality has created a "Raunch Culture". This cultural development, (which has largely occurred in the West) the commercialization of the sexual objectification of women, has been criticized as being limiting for men and women. Rather than being liberating, some feminists argue that the "pornification" of Western society has reduced and equated the scope of feminine power to sexual power only. Some feminists argue that women are themselves objectifying other women by becoming producers and promoters of the "Raunch Culture".
Some masculist theorists posit that prior to the sexual revolution the idealized male was expected to be virile while the idealized female was expected to be modest. They note that after the sexual revolution, women were given more liberty to express virility while the reverse has not been true for men, who have yet to be given a choice to be non-virile. They argued that the dual identity of hypersexuality and asexuality is a luxury and special status that only exists for women. However, many feminists believe that this dual identity rather allows men to condemn a women for her sexuality for being either modest or virile (see double standard).
PornographySome individuals express the view that pornography is contributing to sexism, arguing that in usual pornographic performances for male spectators the actresses are sexually objectified. They state that the narrative is usually formed around men's pleasure as the only goal of sexual activity. The German feminist Alice Schwarzer is one representative of this point of view. She has brought this topic up repeatedly since the 1970s, in particular in the feminist magazine Emma. The reverse, where female spectators are objectifying male actors, has also been identified as sexism.
On the other hand, some famous pornographic actresses such as Teresa Orlowski and Tímea Vágvölgyi have publicly stated that they do not feel themselves to be victims of sexism against women. In fact, many female pornographic stars and sex-positive feminists view pornography to be progressive, since they are paid money for performing consensual acts, and also since many directors and managers of the industry are women as well. Porn positive feminists often support their position by pointing out the situation of women in countries with strict pornography laws (e.g., Saudi Arabia) versus women in countries with liberal pornography laws (e.g., the Netherlands). Many opponents of pornography believe that pornography gives a distorted view of men and women's bodies, as well as the actual sexual act, often showing the performers with synthetic implants or exaggerated expressions of pleasure. Some opponents believe pornographic films tend to show women in particular as being extremely passive, or that the acts women perform are degrading and solely for the pleasure of their sexual partner, and that this is evidence of sexism.
Occupational sexismOccupational sexism refers to any discriminatory practices, statements, actions, etc. based on a person's sex that are present or occur in a place of employment. One form of occupational sexism is wage discrimination, which is prohibited in the US.
Sexual discrimination and lawseealso Discrimination
Though sexism refers to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences. Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences. Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Discrimination of that nature in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries.
Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job interview, or because an employer did not hire, promote or wrongfully terminated an employee based on his or her gender, or employers pay unequally based on gender. In an educational setting there could be claims that a student was excluded from an educational institution, program, opportunity, loan, student group, or scholarship due to his or her gender. In the housing setting there could be claims that a person was refused negotiations on seeking a house, contracting/leasing a house or getting a loan based on his or her gender. Another setting where there have been claims of gender discrimination is banking; for example if one is refused credit or is offered unequal loan terms based on one’s gender.
Socially, sexual differences have been used to justify different roles for men and women, in some cases giving rise to claims of primary and secondary roles. While there are non-physical differences between men and women, there is little agreement as to what those differences are.
The United Nations had concluded that women often experience a "glass ceiling" and that there are no societies in which women enjoy the same opportunities as men.
The term "glass ceiling" is used to describe a perceived barrier to advancement in employment based on discrimination, especially sex discrimination. In the United States, the Glass Ceiling Commission, a government-funded group, stated: "Over half of all Master’s degrees are now awarded to women, yet 95 percent of senior-level managers, of the top Fortune 1000 industrial and 500 service companies are men. Of them, 97 percent are white." In its report, it recommended affirmative action, which is the consideration of an employee's gender and race in hiring and promotion decisions, as a means to end this form of discrimination.
Transgendered individuals, both male to female and female to male, often experience problems which often lead to dismissals, underachievement, difficulty in finding a job, social isolation, and, occasionally, violent attacks against them.
Sexual discrimination in Social Programs and Advertising
In 1997, the Canadian Advertising Foundation ruled that a National Ad campaign that featuring Nicole Brown Simpson's sister Denise with the slogan entiled, "Stop violence against Women" was in fact portraying only men as aggressors, and that it was not providing a balanced message and was in fact contributing to gender stereotyping. (The murder of Nicole Simpson also included the murder of Ronald Goldman)
- National Organisation of Men Against Sexism NOMAS, USA
- Sexism and Sexuality in advertising
- Reverse Sexism Rears its Ugly Head
- Middle Sex
- Father Phobia of the Family Court
- Father's Day Lament
- Federal and California Sex Discrimination Laws
- Hate Crimes: Criminal Law & Identity Politics
- When It Happens To Men
- Gender Bias and Fairness. ERIC Digest.
- A law lecture in mp3 format (part 1, part 2, and part 3) on gender discrimination and U.S. constitutional law
- Equal Pay Act - Actual Text
- Gender Discrimination Law in the United States
sexism in Tosk Albanian: Sexismus
sexism in Arabic: عنصرية جنسية
sexism in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Сэксізм
sexism in Bulgarian: Полова дискриминация
sexism in Catalan: Sexisme
sexism in Czech: Sexismus
sexism in Danish: Kønsdiskrimination
sexism in German: Sexismus
sexism in Estonian: Seksism
sexism in Modern Greek (1453-): Σεξισμός
sexism in Spanish: Sexismo
sexism in Esperanto: Seksismo
sexism in Persian: جنسیتگرایی
sexism in French: Sexisme
sexism in Korean: 성 차별
sexism in Croatian: Seksizam
sexism in Indonesian: Seksisme
sexism in Icelandic: Kynjamismunun
sexism in Italian: Sessismo
sexism in Hebrew: אפליה מינית
sexism in Lithuanian: Seksizmas
sexism in Dutch: Seksisme
sexism in Japanese: 性差別
sexism in Norwegian: Kjønnsdiskriminering
sexism in Polish: Seksizm
sexism in Portuguese: Sexismo
sexism in Russian: Сексизм
sexism in Sicilian: Sissismu
sexism in Simple English: Sexism
sexism in Slovenian: Seksizem
sexism in Serbian: Сексизам
sexism in Serbo-Croatian: Seksizam
sexism in Finnish: Seksismi
sexism in Swedish: Sexism
sexism in Thai: เพศนิยม
sexism in Turkish: Cinsiyetçilik
sexism in Ukrainian: Сексизм
sexism in Chinese: 性別歧視主義
Jim Crow, Jim Crow law, anti-Semitism, apartheid, black power, black supremacy, chauvinism, class consciousness, class distinction, class hatred, class prejudice, class war, color bar, color line, discrimination, fascism, know-nothingism, male chauvinist, minority prejudice, race hatred, race prejudice, race snobbery, racial discrimination, racialism, racism, red-baiting, segregation, sex discrimination, social barrier, social discrimination, superpatriotism, ultranationalism, white power, white supremacy, xenophobia